Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility
Home / Opinion / Commentary / Alaska’s instant run-off election system is democracy in action, could work well in Arizona

Alaska’s instant run-off election system is democracy in action, could work well in Arizona

U.S. House candidate Sarah Palin speaks to the media at her campaign headquarters in South Anchorage, Alaska, after the rank choice ballots were counted on Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2022. Democrat Mary Peltola won the special election for Alaska’s only U.S. House seat on Wednesday, besting a field that included Palin, who was seeking a political comeback in the state where she was once governor. (Bill Roth/Anchorage Daily News via AP)

Recently, Alaskan voters spoke and rejected former Gov. Sarah Palin as their state’s only congressional representative.

Today, the country is wondering how such a recognized Republican could have lost in a state where Republicans have held their congressional seat for decades. Here’s how: a majority of Alaskan voters voted to install her opponent in a ranked choice instant run-off election. Mary Pertola prevailed because over 50% of Alaskans voted for her.

In Arizona’s August primary, Republican voters elected nominees for US Senate, governor, secretary of state and attorney general. None of those nominees won with more than 46% of their own party’s votes, which constitutes less than a third of Arizona voters overall. The Republican attorney general candidate won with only 33.6%! In Arizona, 75% of state primary winners face no general election opposition – or if they do, it is weak because of differences in voter registration numbers in their district. In those districts it is the primary voters who seat the district representatives.

Sarah Smallhouse

Alaska has adopted an instant run-off system that requires candidates to get a majority of the state’s votes to win. Doesn’t that make sense: you must win a majority of votes to win — 50% plus one?

In Alaska, all voters choose their preferred candidate from all parties on the primary election ballot. Then the top four vote-getters (no matter their party affiliation or lack thereof) move onto the general election ballot. Political parties don’t control anyone’s choice – any voter can vote for any candidate.

In the general election, voters rank the candidates: top choice gets the first-place vote, second choice the second vote, and so on down to their fourth choice. It is essentially like a series of elections, but people only have to vote once. When the ranked votes are tallied, if no candidate gets a majority of the first-place votes, the last place candidate is eliminated. Voters who chose that eliminated candidate have their second-place votes reallocated to the remaining candidates in the second count. If there is a candidate with over 50% after the second count, that person is the winner. This process continues until somebody has a majority of the vote.

In Alaska in the first round of vote tallying, Pertola received 39% of first choice voters, Palin got 31% and Nick Begich III, 28%. (The fourth-place candidate had dropped out after the primary and endorsed Pertola.) In the second round, Begich was eliminated and voters who had chosen Begich as their first choice had their second-choice votes counted. Those results put Pertola at 51% and Palin at 48.5%. Alaskans spoke and the candidate who represents a majority of Alaskan voters has been seated in Congress. Fairness prevailed.

Instant run-off elections also have a positive affect on the way campaigns are run. Going forward, Congresswoman Pertola is accountable to all Alaskans, not just a small number of partisans (as is too often the case in Arizona). This means she must address the concerns of a broad spectrum of Alaskans as she governs.

Alaska’s new system is truly democracy in action. Maybe we could make this work in Arizona.

Sarah Smallhouse is president of Save Democracy AZ. 

Correction: This version corrects the headline to accurately reflect the type of election system that Alaska uses. 


One comment

  1. Headline writer: Alaska’s primaries are *not* ranked choice voting. RCV is only used in general elections!

    Sadly, Alaska’s primaries still use pick-one in their primaries, with its common issue of vote-splitting. RCV could also be used there to find who the top-four should be that move on to the general election. No one is going to rank 48 candidates in their blanket primaries, but it would allow partisans to at least differentiate amongst the 16 Republicans or 6 Democrats or 2 Libertarians if they so choose, while independents could mix-and-match.

    As described in Smallhouse’s excellent letter, using RCV in the primaries would also produce a more representative selection of candidates for the general election.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *




Check Also

Arizona’s veterans need cancer solutions

Our nation’s veterans have served their country honorably and in return, we need to treat them with the care and respect that they have earned. ...